The Journal of Special Education Apprenticeship


This study employs a meta-analysis of single-subject design research to investigate the efficacy of mobile device-based interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to further examine possible variables that may moderate the intervention outcomes. A total of 23 studies, 78 participants, and 140 observed cases that met the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. The efficacy of interventions was measured by computing the percentage of nonoverlapping data points (PNDs) and compared across participants’ characteristics, mobile device types, functions of mobile device use, target skills, and intervention strategies. The results showed that interventions with mobile devices for individuals with ID were very effective to acquire, maintain, and generalize the target skills. The magnitude of PNDs was not significantly affected by participants’ characteristics, target skills, intervention strategies or types of mobile device use. Employment of the maintenance and generalization phases and the mastery criterion were significantly associated with PND scores. Mobile devices were mainly utilized as an instructional device for this population. The discussion includes suggestions for expanding the use of mobile devices to the daily activities of individuals with ID as functional technology (FT).