The Journal of Special Education Apprenticeship


This study evaluated the effects of a fluency building activity on the oral reading fluency (ORF) and comprehension of four first grade students identified as at risk for reading failure. The participants in this study were selected because they were members of a group at the highest risk for reading problems, specifically African American boys attending an urban school district. The results of this study demonstrated that the intervention was successful in increasing the ORF of all four participants but results were much more robust for two of the four students. Although ORF increased for all of the participants, gains in comprehension and on formal measures were less evident. The results and implications for classroom implementation as well as directions for future research are discussed.