Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership


Educational Leadership and Curriculum

First Reader/Committee Chair

Dr. Donna Schnorr



For several years, college-level remediation in English and mathematics has been of great concern for California community colleges and four-year colleges and universities. The cost of remediation has skyrocketed into the billions of dollars for postsecondary institutions. Placement tests are required for most students before they are permitted to enroll in any college courses. These placement tests determine in what English and/or math class students will begin their college experience. At issue is that many students who successfully complete high English in the 11th & 12 grades (earn an A or B) are placing into a remedial English class. In 2012, the California Community College Chancellor's Office (CCCCO) reported that over 70 percent of new college students were required to take a remedial English and/or math class. The same is occurring in the California State University (CSU) system. In 2012, 18,690 (33%) CSU first-time freshmen system-wide needed remediation in English. Because of the high rate of remediation among California students in postsecondary institutions, questions have been raised concerning the disconnect between high school English and math and college-level English and math. A mixed-method study will address grades and other variables as predictors of English placement into a community college English course and common language between Common Core State Standards and college-level English course content.