Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership


Educational Leadership and Curriculum

First Reader/Committee Chair



For over a century, educators and politicians have been working on educational reform for various reasons and with the hope of a plethora of outcomes. Since at least the late twentieth century, educational reform has been undertaken for the purpose of increasing students’ academic achievement. While a shift in focus of teaching to a focus on learning has occurred, we know changes in the classroom and with classroom teaching still needs to occur. One recent incarnation of reform has been focused on the teacher and the professional development they receive.

Currently, the United States spends over 18 billion dollars annually on professional development for teachers, but we are not seeing the increase in student achievement which should come about with that sizable investment. This paper looks at the professional development offered to teachers as well as teacher responses to the training they receive, in an attempt to determine what further changes need to be made to bring about an increase in student achievement across the board for all students.