Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership


Educational Leadership and Curriculum

First Reader/Committee Chair

McReynolds. Connie


Many general education students within the public-school setting are struggling to meet the rigorous academic demands of current school systems. The lack of specificity in school-based assessments and interventions impedes an accurate determination of how students with auditory and visual processing difficulties are learning. As a result, students are being misidentified or are receiving supports that do not meet their needs. Public schools across California implement systems of supports Response to Intervention (RTI), Multi-Tier Systems of Supports (MTSS), and Positive Behavior Intervention (PBIS) for all students to make adequate academic progress and experience behavioral and social-emotional needs. Based on student need, implementing an approach that identifies visual and auditory processing needs may facilitate improved monitoring and implementation of individualized interventions in the general education setting. Within these support systems, we can address academic concerns through a more cost-effective manner to reduce referrals to special education.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the implementation of the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA-2) assessment and the neurofeedback intervention is an effective method to reduce unnecessary referrals to special education in an elementary setting. Elementary students were administered pre- and post-test assessments measuring their visual and auditory processing strengths and weakness, and self-rating scales of a social-emotional well-being. A team of educators through the Student Support System (SST) participated in identifying students at risk for academic intervention. Stakeholders included school administrators, classroom teachers, and parents of the identified students. Collaboration was central to the effective implementation of this research study.