Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Psychology



First Reader/Committee Chair

Diaz, Ismael


The introduction of automation in the workforce has negative effects that go beyond technological job displacement. The process of introducing automated systems creates stress in employees, which may relate to lower performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between automation threat and employee-related outcomes such as self-efficacy, means efficacy, and employability and how social support, organizational support, and instrumental support can help buffer against this type of threat. Furthermore, transformational and transactional leadership styles of the manager/supervisor were examined, as they related to the various types of support. Two hundred sixty-nine working adults completed the study survey. This study contributed to research on the introduction of automation and how different forms of support (social, instrumental, organizational) can mediate stress resulting from perceived automation threat. Findings demonstrated that social, instrumental, and organizational support mediated the relationship between leadership styles and employee outcomes. During high automation threat, transactional leaders demonstrated higher levels of social support and instrumental support, and transformational leaders provided higher organizational support. Overall, this study demonstrates that organizational leaders can influence the levels of stress that results from the introduction of automation by providing support through lower-level leaders such as supervisors or managers.