Date of Award
Master of Arts in Mathematics
First Reader/Committee Chair
Dr. Rolland Trapp
This thesis takes a Kleinian approach to hyperbolic geometry in order to illustrate the importance of discrete subgroups and their fundamental domains (fundamental regions). A brief history of Euclids Parallel Postulate and its relation to the discovery of hyperbolic geometry be given first. We will explore two models of hyperbolic $n$-space: $U^n$ and $B^n$. Points, lines, distances, and spheres of these two models will be defined and examples in $U^2$, $U^3$, and $B^2$ will be given. We will then discuss the isometries of $U^n$ and $B^n$. These isometries, known as M\"obius transformations, have special properties and turn out to be linear fractional transformations when in $U^2$ and $B^2$. We will then study a bit of topology, specifically the topological groups relevant to the group of isometries of hyperbolic $n$-space, $I(H^n)$. Finally we will combine what we know about hyperbolic $n$-space and topological groups in order to study fundamental regions, fundamental domains, Dirichlet domains, and quotient spaces. Using examples in $U^2$, we will then illustrate how useful fundamental domains are when it comes to visualizing the geometry of quotient spaces.
Hidalgo, Joshua L., "A KLEINIAN APPROACH TO FUNDAMENTAL REGIONS" (2014). Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations. 35.