Journal of Critical Issues in Educational Practice


violence, aggression, schools, children, adolescents


Violence and aggression continue to cause harm to American schools and communities, which has been visibly illustrated by the continual perpetration of school shootings. In order to prevent these situations for occurring again, the etiology of violent and aggressive behaviors must be studied. Utilizing an ecological perspective, both the risk factors and protective factors of violence and aggression, also known as a dual strategy approach, are examined within an educational context. Specific risk factors reviewed include weapons exposure and social rejection, while protective factors reviewed include school connectedness and pro-social relationships. Implications regarding the prevention of violent and aggressive acts among students, with the goal of creating safer school environments, are provided for each domain.

Author Statement

Barbara Katic is a PhD student in School Psychology at the University of California, Riverside, and also works as a school counselor in Los Angeles County.