Journal of Critical Issues in Educational Practice


restorative practice, counseling, hockey violence, male-dominated sports, invitational practice, Alan Jenkins


Aggression and violence are common characteristics of professional ice hockey games. While hockey players are encouraged to be aggressive on-ice, these behaviors are not welcomed off the ice. Instances of athlete aggression occurring outside the context of professional sporting events have been documented, particularly within interpersonal relationships. In order to address this issue, the process of counseling professional male ice hockey players must be considered. The invitational approach, as outlined by Alan Jenkins, can be used to take into account the contradictions of violence and aggression in professional sporting contexts. Rather than label perpetrators of abuse with psychological shortcomings, invitational practice brings forth the politics of power relations within institutional settings. Narratives from former ice hockey players will be examined and the invitational approach will be applied from a counseling perspective. The institution of the National Hockey League (NHL) will be deconstructed in terms of power relations and practices. Four themes will be examined: fame/approval, masculinity, gender relations, and alcohol consumption. The goals of restorative practice allow for the cessation of violence and abuse, restitution for harm done, and help reclaim a sense of integrity for the perpetrator.

Author Statement

I am currently a graduate student in the M.S. Counseling & Guidance program at California State University, San Bernardino. I work as a graduate assistant for the Department of Special Education, Rehabilitation, and Counseling. I completed my undergraduate degree at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada).