Journal of Critical Issues in Educational Practice


literacy, reading, correctional education, special education


This article introduces literacy from a few “big picture” perspectives, and then reviews five paradigms that have shaped the teaching and learning of literacy in residential confinement institutions for juveniles and adults. The paradigms are specific to correctional education, but they will be familiar to all alternative teachers and advocates of literacy instruction.

Author Statement

Dr Thom Gehring and Dr Gary Sherwin are professors in the College of Education at California State University San Bernardino.