OSR Journal of Student Research

Article Title

The effects of feedforward self-modeling on self-efficacy beliefs


An abundance of research has investigated the relationship between self-as-a-model techniques and the effects on one’s self-efficacy (see McCullagh et al., 2012). Of specific interest here is the feedforward self-modeling technique (FF; i.e., viewing oneself perform at levels not yet achieved using edited video). Within the FF technique, one could produce a mirror image of a skill to demonstrate an individual performing that skill on the contralateral side of the actual performance. One way a FF technique could boost performance is through altered self-efficacy beliefs. FF techniques could boost self-efficacy beliefs through the past performance and vicarious experience mechanisms outlined in the self-efficacy theory. To our knowledge, the effects of FF self-modeling in the form of mirror reversal (FF-MR) on one’s self-efficacy beliefs has not been investigated. Thus, this research examined the effects of (FF-MR) on basketball free throw self-efficacy for the non-dominant hand. Participants (n = 26) participated in four sessions (baseline, two intervention days, and retention) over a four-week period. During each session, participants completed 10 free throw shots with their non-dominant hand and completed the self-efficacy questionnaire. FF-MR videos were viewed during the two intervention phases. A RM-ANOVA was conducted. Results indicated a significant main effect for time (F(3, 75) = 3.95, p = 0.01, eta = 0.14, power = 0.81). The results suggest that the use of FF-MR videos increased self-efficacy beliefs of a free throw performance of the non-dominant hand. Practical application of results along with strengths and weaknesses will be discussed.

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