Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Psychology



First Reader/Committee Chair

Kottke, Janet


This meta-analysis focuses on the willingness to work aspect of the RAW model of employability of Hogan et al. (2009), in relationship to career success. Willingness to work (W) can be defined as favorably disposed to work hard and take initiative at one’s job. The variables I used to structure the W are proactive personality, conscientiousness, work ethic, job involvement, adaptability, and ambition.

I used the Hunter and Schmidt method to analyze the data applying a random effects model. All calculations were conducted in Excel. The overall sample consisted of 100 effect sizes (r) derived from 41 studies. The total sample size was 45,652. The individuals in these samples were from a wide range of backgrounds that included diverse samples of age, culture, and occupations.

The results indicated a small to medium effect size for all variables. This outcome supports my hypotheses, concluding that willingness to work correlates with both objective and subjective career success. Because of small sample sizes (i.e., relatively few studies with usable moderator data), a moderator analysis was not conducted. Once sufficient studies have been published in this domain, future researchers could look into the possibility of moderators.